Authoritarian government ?

Question:Does any one know what an authoritarian government is and the advantages and the disadvantages??




Answers:
In one sense, authoritarianism is a government that governs without the consent of those being governed. This definition concerns the source of governing power instead of the scope of governing power. Under such definition, authoritarianism is contrasted with democracy, under which the power of governors comes from the people.
In another sense, authoritarianism describes a form of social control characterized by strict obedience to the authority of a state or organization, often maintaining and enforcing control through the use of oppressive measures. Authoritarian regimes are strongly hierarchical.
In an authoritarian form of government, citizens are subject to state authority in many aspects of their lives, including many matters that other political philosophies would see as erosion of civil liberties and freedom. There are various degrees of authoritarianism; even very democratic and liberal states will show authoritarianism to some extent, for example in areas of national security.
At least one author, John Duckitt, suggests a specific link exists between authoritarianism and collectivism. In both cases individual rights and goals are subjugated to group goals, expectations and confirmities.
Authoritarianism generally relies upon a strong governmental control of the media, as in the case of present day Venezuela.
In one sense, authoritarianism means a form of social control characterized by strict obedience to the authority of a state. Hence, the term has similar meaning with totalitarianism, with the latter being an extreme case of the former.
For example, the Spanish government under Francisco Franco, while there was still some personal freedom, would be considered as authoritarian. On the other hand, USSR under Stalin would be regarded as totalitarian as it governed all sorts of things of the people.
However, for some scholars, like Joseph C.W. Chan from the University of Hong Kong, these two terms differ in the definition. An authoritarian government is a government that has the power to govern without consent of those being governed, while totalitarianism describes a state that regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior of the people. In other words, authoritarianism concerns the source of the governing power (where the power comes from) and totalitarianism concerns the scope of the governing power (what the government regulates). In this sense, authoritarianism (government without people's consent) is a contrast to democracy (government whose power comes from people) and totalitarianism (government controls every aspect of people's life) corresponds to liberalism (government emphasizes individual right and liberty). Though the definitions of the terms differ, they are related in reality as most of the authoritarian states tend to show totalitarian characteristics. When governments' power does not come from the people, their power is not limited and tend to expand their scope of power to control every aspect of people's life.
Under this definition, some scholars think that even a representative democracy may also be authoritarian over periods of years, because the public only has the authority to vote the representatives out at election time. Any individual policy and legislation thus does not have the consent from those being governed.
authoritarianism

noun

A political doctrine advocating the principle of absolute rule: absolutism, autocracy, despotism, dictatorship, totalitarianism.
In some sense, authoritarianism describes a form of social control characterized by strict obedience to the authority of a state or organization, often maintaining and enforcing control through the use of oppressive measures. Authoritarian regimes are strongly hierarchical.

In an authoritarian form of government, citizens are subject to state authority in many aspects of their lives, including many matters that other political philosophies would see as erosion of civil liberties and freedom. There are various degrees of authoritarianism; even very democratic and liberal states will show authoritarianism to some extent, for example in areas of national security.

At least one author, John Duckitt, suggests a specific link exists between authoritarianism and collectivism.[1] In both cases individual rights and goals are subjugated to group goals, expectations and confirmities.[2]

In other sense, authoritarianism means a government that has the power to govern without consent of those being governed. This definition concerns the source of governing power instead of the scope of governing power.


Definition
In some sense, authoritatianism means a form of social control characterized by strict obedience to the authority of a state. Hence, the term has similar meaning with totalitarianism, while the latter is an extreme case of the former.

For example, the Spanish government under under Francisco Franco, while there was still some personal freedom, would be considered as authoritatian. On the other hand, USSR under Stalin would be regarded as totalitarian as it governed all sorts of things of the people.

However, for some scholars, like Joseph C.W. Chan from the University of Hong Kong, this two terms differ in the definition. An authoritarian government is a government that has the power to govern without consent of those being governed, while totalitarianism describes a state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior of the people. In other words, authoritatianism concerns the source of the governing power (where the power comes from) and totalitarianism concerns the scope of the governing power (what the governnment regulates). In this sense, authoritarianism (government without people's consent) is a contrast to democracy (government whose power comes from people) and totalitarianism (government contorls every aspect of people's life) corresponds to liberalism (government emphasizes individual right and liberty). Though the definitions of the terms differ, they are related in reality as most of the authoritatian states tend to show totalitarian characteristics. When governments' power does not come from the people, their power is not limited and tend to expand their scope of power to contorl every aspect of people's life.

Under this definition, some scholars think that even a representative democracy may also be authoritarian over periods of years, because the public only has the authority to vote the representatives out at election time. Any individual policy and legislation thus does not have the concent from those being governed.
An authoritarian government treats people as if it doesn't trust them. This is especially true of people that government oficials believe do not agree with the government's policies.

An authoritarian government spies on people, reads their mail, or e-mail and sometimes arrests them for things that wouldn't be crimes with democratic governments. For example, in some authoritarian countries,insulting the president is a crime. People can also be arrested for fighting for the rights of people who are unpopular, such as gays, or members of minorities, or even poor people.

Authoiritarian governments also make it very hard for people to find out what the government is doing. They can make ordinary government records, like budgets or reports of meetings secret and can arrest people for trying to find out what the government is doing.

Sometimes when people are arrested, their trials are secret, and they can be sentenced for long periods. They may not be told what they were arrested for. They may not be allowed to have a lawyer, or if they do have a lawyer, the lawyer may not be allowed to do everything that lawyers normally do to defend them. Sometimes, lawyers are arrested for defending people the government wants to send to jail.

There are advantages to an authoritarian government. They can often make decisions faster than democratic goivernments can. Sometimes, when there are groups in the society that hate each other and want to fight against each other, an authoritarian government is the only thing that keeps a civil war from happening. This can happen when a country is made up of groups that speak different languages or have different religions and have had wars in the past. An authoritarian government is probably what kept the country of Yugoslavia peaceful until it broke up in 1991. When it broke up wars started between between the different groups that made up the country.

There are many disadvantages of authoritarian governments. One major disadvantage is that people don't have the kind of freedom that people have with a democratic government. For example, people have to be very careful when they criticize the government to people they don't know. The person they are talking to may be a spy for the govement, and they can be arrested. Sometimes, they even have to be careful talking to people they do know because the government can force people to spy on their friends, or even on members of their families. Sometimes people don't even have to criticize the government to get in trouble. If someone in the government thinks they are criticizing the government thay can get in trouble, even if they aren't.

Another disadvantage is that, because ordinary people have no way to change what the government does, it is very difficult to make changes that people who are not part of the government need. For example, if government officials are taking bribes (money or gifts) to do things that help some people but harm others, it is difficult to stop this. Over time, more and more changes are needed, but there is no easy way to make change. In the end, many authoritarian governments push people to trying to use violence to change the government. This leads to a great deal of violence and loss of life no matter who wins. Sometimes, authoritarian governments just fall apart. When this happens, it can lead to a democratic government, but it can also just lead to violence.

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